4 . Principle type euthanasia :
a) Direct/Deliberate : By giving a lethal dose of drugs; eg: muscle relaxant
Divided into two : Voluntary (the patient asks for it) + Involuntary (The decision is made by other than the patient, due to his ‘can no longer make a decision’ state)
b) Assisted suicide : patient ends his life by himself according o the instructions given by others
c) Active : Specific action taken to bring life to an end. eg: Giving large doses of sedation/ tranquilizers
d) Passive : By deactivating an active treatment / life support, when there is a potential recovery
5. Assisted Reproductive technique for infertility couple:
a) Sperm donation : Allowed, with a condition that the sperms used come from a legal husband.
Yusuf Al-Qardawi said, ‘the issue of sperm donor(from an unlawful husband) is equal to adultery. Hence, it is a crime and a great sin ’ – He also emphasizes on the importance of safeguarding the lineage in Islam
Sperm cryopreservation : Legal, as long as the couple is in the marriage contract i.e. it is not permissible to impregnate woman whose husband has died, as Islam emphasizes on the need on that child to be raised up by his parents –mom+dad
b) IVF : The issue is on selecting the embryo for transfer and the fate of the other remaining embryos..
a) patient may ask to discard the embryo / cryopreserve it. Cryopreservation : allowed when the woman does not have to undergo the drug stimulation cycle again and again. It also prevents the woman from experiencing the side effects of the stimulant drugs.
b) Status of embryo : Imam Al Ghazali said – the fertilised eggs should be treated with respect as it is in the first stage of human existence (where settling of semen in the womb takes place)
c) Surrogacy : Haram if the surrogate mother has no bonding legally and Islamically to the husband. If the surrogate mother is another wife of that husband legally, then it is permissible (in the eyes of some jurists)
6. Source of stem cell and issue of stem cell :
a) Sources of stem cell :
- Human fetal tissue, following abortion
- Human embryo resulted from IVF
- Adult stem cell, sourced from bone marrow, skin, liver..etc
- Cloned human embryo
b) Issue of stem cell
a) Human embryo resulted from IVF
Use : Limited
Only allowed when isolation of stem cells from frozen embryos, purposely for IVF. After that, should be destroyed.
The procedure should get full consent from the donors.
This provides safeguards against monetary compensation to embryo donors
b) Adult stem cell, sourced from bone marrow, skin, liver..etc
Use: not really encouraging
Not really encouraged compared to using embryonic or fetal stem cell, as it cannot differentiate as good and as various as those two stem cells.
Hence, it does not provide a wide application.
Further research is encouraged
c) Cloned human embryo
Use : rejected
Rejected of usage by Muslim Scholars
Described by the mufti of Egypt, it ‘contradicts Islamic legislation and prohibited in all forms as it contradicts with Islamic teaching’
p/s : maaf lambat post.line tak clear.